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e, which on this case is reducing pathogen contamination/exposure ensuing from wastewater irrigation. First, it is necessary to conduct a baseline survey to acquire good pre-intervention measures of both livelihood methods and livelihood outcomes, as a result of this will be crucial to obtaining good measures of intervention impacts when a bundle of cost-efficient management measures is launched. The baseline survey will collect info associated to well being, education, behaviours, preferences and water utilization, and address questions on how illness/illness as a result of contact with untreated wastewater results in asset loss (either via price or through brief-time period loss of market to promote vegetable crops irrigated with wastewater). A baseline danger evaluation can also be needed to estimate exposures and prevalence of pathogen contamination. Qualitative strategies similar to focus group discussions and participatory fast appraisal of the data, attitudes and perceptions of health penalties of manufacturing or consuming vegetables and fruits irrigated with wastewater would capture the dynamic modifications in livelihood strategies. A participatory value-chain mapping may also be carried out to grasp the basic relationships between value-chain actors and the structure of flows of merchandise from raw materials supply to the top shopper market, and to evaluate the value of losses as a result of microbial contamination (Hellin et al., 2005). This includes participatory statement, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions to map the move of produce irrigated with wastewater from farm to last client, in order to identify the important thing actors along the chain and perceive the position of wastewater irrigation in their livelihoods . Mapping the worth chain can also help determine high- and low-threat areas alongside the chain, market failures and coordination mechanisms, incentives that will impede or facilitate the uptake of the a number of-barrier approach to forestall contamination and cut back health risks at all levels of the chain. It can also determine regulatory and market issues that will hinder or enhance functions of institutions and organizations offering providers such as input supplies, market information, credit and quality standards that the totally different actors want to assist them determine whether to adopt or apply control and preventive measures.