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Assuming you are your grandson’s legal guardian, my first recommendation is to speak to your grandson’s teacher and ask for strategies that can be practiced at home. While I have some suggestions, let me say that without knowing more details about your grandson and his reading abilities, I can offer some generic advice but not the targeted advice that he might need.
First, a partnership with your grandson’s teacher is essential. It’s hard to know whether his issue is his ability to comprehend the syntax of the text or perhaps a need to expand his vocabulary or decode longer words. (Of course, if you’re not your grandson’s legal guardian, you’ll want to talk to your son or daughter about partnering with your grandson’s teacher.)
He may also be rushing through the text and not monitoring his own comprehensions. When this happens, readers don’t know to stop and reread sections that might have initially confused them, so they finish the text confused and unsure how to clear up that confusion.
He may also need some strategies to help him better approach multiple-choice questions. Kids need to learn to read each choice carefully, use process of elimination to reduce the number of choices they face, and recognize the small but critical differences between two answers. They also need to learn to slow down. Test designers try to make all of the choices on a multiple-choice test seem somewhat reasonable, often with parts of the correct answer in all four choices, so students often jump on the first answer that looks correct without considering all of the possibilities. Teaching students to read through all of the possibilities before answering can make a huge difference in terms of their scores. When you know what to look for, reading becomes a more targeted, strategic process.
When your grandson is reading at home, here are some things that you (and all parents of elementary students) can do to help improve comprehension.
Retelling: When your grandson is finished reading a text, ask him to retell what he has just read. Retelling is a great way to practice comprehension strategies and help him (and you) determine if he is failing to comprehend the text and missing large parts of the story.